Steel Structure Design Calculation Pdf


This Change 1 to EM-1110-2-2105, 31 March 1993, updates Appendix H. The most common reinforced masonry beam is a lintel. piping above ground ii. 5 M F Z M y or 1 5. Based on this study, a typical structure utilizing SDS/2 connection design on 10,000 members has an average savings of 13 minutes per connection, resulting in an estimated savings of $433,333. Where Fw = nominal strength of the weld metal per unit area = 0. The design of column-base-plate. We can assist in beam length, design and loading. Loads acting on the structure are gravity loads (dead & live), Crane Loads, wind loads, and seismic loads calculated using. Montgomery5, and C. References: [1] SCI P358 Joints in Steel Construction: Simple Joints to Eurocode 3. Load and Resistance Factor Design. 1 Characteristic Strength A number of different (material specific) strength parameters can be used for structural design, depending on the specific material behavior. articles on the behavior and design of steel support structures for pipes. aluminum alloys) should use other formulas. 1: General rules and rules for buildings, as published by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), plus the National Application Document (NAD) to be used with the ENV on the design of buildings to be constructed in the UnitedKingdom (UK). A civil engineer should study these lectures and materials for structural engineering acumen. Steele Solutions is the leader in the design of pre-engineered steel structures for mezzanines, platforms, equipment support structures, catwalks, crossovers and steel towers used in a wide variety of applications. 4 design method (Walls designed as compression members)  Based on preliminary investigation, try #6 bars at an 8 inch spacing (#[email protected]”). The purpose of this monograph is to provide a uniform basis for design of flightworthy structure. Solar Modeling. Design a structure to support a sign 22 ft. Design of Steel Structures N-004 Annex K Revision of section K. Eurocode3: Design of Steel Structures—Part1. If you have. This collection includes following spreadsheets under following categories, Geotechnical design, Structural R/F concrete, Structural steel design & detailing, Bridge design, Timber design, Structural dynamics, Wind load calculation and Hydraulics and. The finite element analysis program RFEM is a powerful software for quick and easy modeling, structural analysis and design of 2D and 3D models consisting of member, plate, wall, folded plate, shell, solid, and contact elements. These calculations are for the design of an approximately 150-ft tall steel pole supporting an approximately 40-ft x 80-ft flexible flag 8610 S. Ball and Roller Thrust Bearings 11. Locknuts, washers, locking methods, inserts, rivets, and tapped holes are also covered. Design of Beams – Flexure and Shear 2. The main part consists of a mono pile tubular section, but the lower part consists of braces and legs. This report presents the analysis and design of a ten-story hospital in Memphis, TN. Load Types. The Structural Eurocodes are a set of structural design standards, developed by CEN over the last 30 years, to cover the design of all types of structures in steel, concrete, timber, masonry and. Local plate buckling is considered by calculation of the effective width (class 4 cross section). This is the general classification of loads. The finite element model is set up as shown in Fig. 1 Introduction 1 1. K = effective length factor for columns, as is k l = name for length = length of beam in rigid joint = length of column in rigid joint. What you need to know to use this calculator – a Step-by-Step guide. structural design software free download - Design Home, Design Home, Innovative Structural Design Tool, and many more programs. VDOT does not warranty any of the information contained therein. Solar Modeling. This video shows how you can create a mixed concrete-steel structure and quickly produce all the relevant construction documents. articles on the behavior and design of steel support structures for pipes. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the National Building Code of Canada (NBC) 2015, and CSA Standard S16-14, Design of. Reference is made to the Eurocode in one special case. Bart Quimby, P. structural steel components while ASTM A 123/A 123M is the United States Standard. ( older version ) Reinforced Concrete Column Calculator : Analyses and designs tied or spiral (rectangular or circular) reinforced concrete columns based on the strength method. 5 2 Steel stress [MPa] Crack width [mm] 0 100 200 300 400 500 2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5 0 φ32 φ25 φ20 φ16 φ12 φ10 φ8 φ6. Concrete Recycling: Research and Practice. Structural Calculations - Code and Standard Used BS EN 1990 : Basic of Structural Design BS EN 1991 : Actions on Structure BS EN 1992 : Designs of Concrete Structure BS EN1993 : Design of Steel Structure BS EN 1994 : Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structure S1050 A7 : Civil Engineering - Common Requirements. Reinforced Concrete Design Structural design standards for reinforced concrete are established by the Building Code and compression over a rectangular "stress" block above the n. Determine the earthquake force on each story in North-South direction. "EtabsSteelSeminar" — 2006/9/18 — 15:25 — page i — #1 FROM START TO FINISH: MODEL, DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE A MULTI-STORY STEEL STRUCTURE USING ETABS Computers and Structures, Inc. Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Nonbuilding structures comprise a myriad of structures constructed of all types of materials with markedly different dynamic characteristics and a wide range of performance requirements. Spreadsheet to analyse and design simply supported W, S, M, C, MC American Steel Sections. Also, the effect of such factors as damage to the structure or loss of steel cross-sectional area due to corrosion or the like must be considered when necessary. download link : gate & psu’s – steel structures – civil engineering – ace engineering academy study material – 2014 edition – free download pdf. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR WELDING A part from resistance spot welding (RSW), three processes are most commonly used for welding metal stampings and fabrications: gas metal arc welding (GMAW) or MIG; gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or TIG; and gas welding. Spreadsheets for water treatment design calculations, such as lime soda softening calculations Dissolved Oxygen in Water Spreadsheets for calculating the saturation D. However, where any discrepancies occur between these calculations and the working drawings, the Engineer shall be notified immediately so proper action may be taken. including the trolley structures and hook block. Spreadsheets can do basic calculations such as cost estimates, schedule and cost control, and markup estimation, as well as structural calculations of reactions, stresses, strains, deflections, and slopes. Goel , Shih-Ho Chao. Students will begin to understand the problem, and. 1 Characteristic Strength A number of different (material specific) strength parameters can be used for structural design, depending on the specific material behavior. The Third Edition of the design specifications, to be published in 2004, will contain a complete set of new provisions for the design of straight steel I- and box-section flexural members within Articles 6. Critical sections for moments 2. 7 Resistances of cross-sections 49 5 MEMBER DESIGN 54. 2-1 June 2019. ROCEDURE FOR. , is a structural engineer at At las Tube. steel structures practical design studies macginley. A full 3D model is generated. Structural Calculations The following is an overview of the loading used in the design of the structure and the key parameters used to derive the loads. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation) EN 1992-1-1:2004 - Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings. 1-29 Attachment 2 Type Selection Issues, Topics, and Items for. Hand-calculation capacity checks of nodes, joints & members, including welds. In addition, design of the overall structure and its primary load‐resisting systems shall conform to the general design provisions given in Chapter 1. Spreadsheet to analyse and design simply supported W, S, M, C, MC American Steel Sections. Staad Pro Interactive Steel Design using truss best explained in detail Top 5 Structural Design and Analysis softwares. Steel Beams Supporting Cavity Wall, Lean to Roof and Ceiling. • A shallow construction depth of 310 mm was achieved using Slimdek for a structural grid of approximately 7 m. Steel Deck Institute. MacCrimmon This guide fills a long-standing need for technical information for the design and construction of crane-supporting steel structures that is compatible with Canadian codes and standards written in Limit States format. Railings 14. Sandy Parkway, Ste. The current 15th edition should be made available to you by your employer. The best practice guidelines document is intended to be a technical resource that provides the most complete information for structural fire-resistant design at present. 5 Structural Steel Shapes Steel sections used for construction are available in a variety of shapes and sizes. Figure 1-2 Formfinding of a tensioned membrane structure. Steel Deck Institute Diaphragm Design Manual. The total dead plus live loads equal the “gravity load” of the structure. Complete steel garage design using roof truss system: Dimension of proposed steel structure: Considering. As part of steel bridge rehabilitation or modification, calculations shall be made to demonstrate the adequacy of existing members and connections, with special attention given to fracture critical components such as truss gusset plates. In compliance with the Honor Code, the students are not to copy homework from each other or solutions manual. 5' average depth x 80' perimeter = 360 sf walls. 2 Loads § Roof live load (L), snow = 25 psf § Roof dead load (D) = 15 psf § Mezzanine live load, storage = 125 psf. Calculator assessment of timber structures to AS1720; Calculator for assessment of cold formed steel structures to AS4600; Calculator for assessment of steel structures to AS4100; Calculation of Plane Truss; Cold Formed Steel Sheds Australia Height Span Limits of C-Sections; Composite Column; Concrete Beam Design (CSA A23. ANSIIAISC 36O-0S Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. BS 5400-3* BS EN 1993-3-1:2007 Design of steel structures. 6 Hibond Fire Design 3. Kirkee and I H Al-Jamd, Steel Structures Design Manual to AS 4100, 2004, pp 1-243 33. Download Structural Steel Design By Jack C. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Note :- These notes are according to the R09 Syllabus book of JNTU. Steel Beams Supporting Cavity Wall, Lean to Roof and Ceiling. CHAPTER 11: PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 11. Wind Load Calculator - Envelope Procedure. Small and easy to use FEA analysis, with a user friendly Windows interface to make your life easy. A truss consists of angles, channels, plates and eye bars. Loads and Load Factors 4. This in-depth resource provides clear interpretations of the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, 2010 edition. Link:Unit 2 Notes. Any structural alteration made to residential or commercial buildings will need Building Control approval, whether it's a small extension or removal of an internal load bearing wall. General Design Information Fastener Materials Bolts can be made from many materials, but most bolts are made of carbon steel, alloy steel, or stainless steel. The total dead plus live loads equal the “gravity load” of the structure. Normally, formwork is designed to support load from fresh concrete (including static pressure), their self weight, live load …. In order to select the method of structural analysis, it is necessary to define a structure type, or to define a consequence class to which a structure belongs. K = effective length factor for columns, as is k l = name for length = length of beam in rigid joint = length of column in rigid joint. Calculator for Steel sheets and plates Calculators. , safety and serviceability) throughout the structure's useful life. Nonbuilding structures comprise a myriad of structures constructed of all types of materials with markedly different dynamic characteristics and a wide range of performance requirements. 3 Grouted connection, 15 April 2012 NORSOK standard Page 170 of 314 K. Stair design: I designed a stair and landing both assuming thickness of waist 8” with complete calculation and proper cross-section. storage tanks cylindrical and spheroidal vi. Reinforced Concrete Effective span Centre-to-centre distance between supports Longer dimension of a rectangular panel of slab for yield line calculations Modular ratio = Es/Ec Design bending moment per unit width of slab modified to account for axial load Moment per unit width about x-axis Moment per unit width about y-axis. steel bridge design handbook. Part 2: Design, selection of materials and execution of masonry. Beam self weight NOT internally calculated and added Load(s) for Span Number 1 Point Load : W = 0. required, < 20,000 cyles) Design life of 50 years, crane is heavily loaded 15x per shift x 2 shifts x 5 days a week = 390,000 cycles (fatigue check. engineering. The roller connection resists vertical forces only. The layout and contents of the tables covered in this report closely resemble those given for equivalent carbon steel structural sections in the AISC Steel Construction Manual [3]. In addi-4–210 Design Calculations *Versions of the test method are also published as NFPA251 5 and UL 263. Structural Steel Connections, Joints and Details Objective and Scope Met • Modldule 1: Welds - Introduction - Basics of welding - Fillet weld - LRFD of welded connections - Eccentric shear in welds BMA Engineering, Inc. Whether you work with structural connections constantly or just once in a while, Descon is a comprehensive tool that is used with each stage of the connection design process. 5-2 The left figure shows grout termination above Lower Yoke plate and the right. North American Specification for the design of cold-formed Steel Structural Members. We provide full calculation sheets based on your property requirements to the standards of Building Control & British Standards. Design of cold-formed steel structures to AS4600. Clause 27. The following structural sections are covered in this publication: • Circular HSS. Report Date November 2012 6. ASME STS-1–2011 (Revision of ASME STS-1–2006) Steel Stacks AN AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD Three Park Avenue • New York, NY • 10016 USA. Hand-calculation capacity checks of nodes, joints & members, including welds. While every ef-fort has been made to insure its accuracy, this information should. Pdf Tower Crane Foundation Design And Stability Review Model. Steel Head Frames and Coal Tipples. This was part of a multi-sheet project for the complete design of an A-frame wood structure. Structural Design Criteria April 2017 Process Industry Practices Page 2 of 50 1. , safety and serviceability) throughout the structure's useful life. When making a structure, it could typically be considered approved that the roof is a one shape-fits-all event, yet this is most definitely not the situation. This specification is a supplement to th e. Note: this includes "reaction" forces from the supports as well. 1 Note: As promulgated in the 2009 IBC, every structure, and portion thereof, including nonstructural components that are permanently attached to structures and their supports and. 60W+H Span # where maximum occurs Span # 1. Beam self weight NOT internally calculated and added Load(s) for Span Number 1 Point Load : W = 0. The design examples provide coverage of all applicable limit states whether or not a. Specifications and only straight steel bridges are covered in the provisions as of this writing. Steel Connect is published in two parts. Calculator for Steel sheets and plates Calculators. Staad Pro Interactive Steel Design using truss best explained in detail Top 5 Structural Design and Analysis softwares. This lesson covers materials, methods and techniques associated with concrete formwork design and construction for walls (slab formwork design will be covered in. This is a simple area calculation once the section has been highlighted. The design is optimized for easy assembly, dismantle and transportation. The main element of a cable suspended bridge is the cable system. 13 Hibond. A qualified engineer will use proprietary 3D modeling and calculation software to provide the steel structure fatigue calculation. The purpose of this guide is to promote the safe and efficient use of stainless steel in structures. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. This forum also aims in aiding professionals from allied fields such as architecture, construction, sociology, planning, conservation and disaster mitigation to interact with. Design of Beams and Requirements For the beam’s design, we had two types per floor. Guidelines for the Design and Construction of Railroad Overpasses and Underpasses 5 structure shall be designed for E-80 load to accommodate any future track needs or modifications. Influence area refers to the area upon which most of the load is acting. The following table presents a comprehensive listing of the standards applicable to hot-dip galvanized materials. STRUCTURAL LAYOUT PLAN • the sizes of vertical and structural structural members can be optimised to keep the volume of concrete for the entire superstructure inclusive of walls and lift cores to be in the region of 0. Structural Shapes - standard steel configurations produced by steel mills such as wide flanges, channels, angles, pipe, tubes, etc. Although a high initial investment is necessary, laser welding is being more widely employed by. 1 Section force-deformation response & Plastic Moment (Mp) • A beam is a structural member that is subjected primarily to transverse loads and negligible axial loads. 58184 0 w 6 σs w 8 σs w 10 σs w 16 σs w 20 σs w 25 σs w 32 σs 510 0 σs. 6 Hibond Fire Design 3. The plan of the building is 320 ft × 80 ft. They are legally backed by the engineering profession. There will be 4 gantry structure horizontal side-frame beams with the length of 280. Example of using spreadsheet iteration to calculate effective section modulus for cold-formed c-section. ASDIP STEEL structural design software is utilized by engineers for design of steel base plates, steel and composite beams, steel columns, and shear connections. Loads acting on the structure are gravity loads (dead & live), Crane Loads, wind loads, and seismic loads calculated using. This Change 1 to EM-1110-2-2105, 31 March 1993, updates Appendix H. Division of Structural Engineering Elastic response 1. Ductility of steel structure as shown in Figure-3 is crucial properties that allow redistribution of stress in continuous steel elements. Staad Pro Interactive Steel Design using truss best explained in detail Top 5 Structural Design and Analysis softwares. The static design procedure followed the EC3 [CEN, 2005]. The degree of integration, simplicity of input and speed of design make MasterBeam: Steel Beam Designer the ideal software tool for common beam calculations. Scheme development: Purlin structure design SS049a-EN-EU Scheme development: Purlin structure design Provides the information required for designing the purlin structure of a steel-frame building. The W-shape has parallel inner and outer flange surfaces with a constant thickness, while the. Superposition of the forces and moments from the propped-cantilever and cantilever structural analogs provides the information needed to design the post and post foundation. The main element of a cable suspended bridge is the cable system. Introduction to Elements of Pile Supported Foundation Design The various types of loads produced from buildings, bridges, or any other structure must be transmitted to the soil through foundations. Swimming Pool cubic yard gunite requirement Example 15' x 30' freeform pool 3' to 6' deep w/ 80 perimeter and 390 square ft. It does not include for example cables, ladders, chutes, grating, stairs, catwalks, handrails or ornamental metal. In compliance with the Honor Code, the students are not to copy homework from each other or solutions manual. Structural Design Calculations. A wide variety of steel structure drawings pdf options are available to you, such as metal. 4 Hibond Formwork Design 3. Ductility of steel structure as shown in Figure-3 is crucial properties that allow redistribution of stress in continuous steel elements. Load chart h beam construction relevant structural systems 77 symbolic header span chart steel h beam size chart best in the. It supports Building Information Modeling- and CAD-based workflows for architects, MEP and structural engineers, and construction professionals. 7 Hibond Noise Control 3. Steel structures needs more maintenance and care as compared with concrete structures. Download both pdf for better preparation. Safety of structures, limit state design, codes and specifications for the design 5. Steel and structural design according to Norsok/Eurocode. Complete Design of Steel Structures Pdf free download. We have well-experienced and qualified project managers, steel detailers and checkers to fulfill clients’ all structural requirements for various steel structures. Flexure and Axial Design Vertical reinforcement at base of wall  Using Section 14. We provide full calculation sheets based on your property requirements to the standards of Building Control & British Standards. There will be 4 gantry structure horizontal side-frame beams with the length of 280. Special attention on aspects other than mathematical calculations should be. 1 All-steel braced structure 123 7. Writing calculation reports. org Introduction Steel framing is a practical, code approved solution to many of the limitations that builders face today when using. Deierlein is the Director of the John A. To simplify structural design and analysis, though, all the many different types of connections are grouped in three basic categories: roller, pinned and fixed. You can also control settings such as units, display settings of framing members and. This manual prescribes guidance for designing new hydraulic steel structures (HSS) by Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). During the semester, the students must complete an engineering design project involving the design of a simple structural system. Steel Sheet Piling Design Manual Notice “The information, including technical and engineering data, figures, tables, designs, drawings, details, suggested procedures, and suggested specifications, presented in this publication are for general information only. 5 ft H sp = 6 ft L sp = 8 ft L pole = 22 ft ø arm-E = 6. Formwork is usually temporary (struck from concrete after curing) or permanent. This Change 1 to EM-1110-2-2105, 31 March 1993, updates Appendix H. It is not practical to analyse the building as a whole. 2 shows the most important failure characteristics. Designs are now to conform to limit state theory—the British steel code and the new Eurocode. Design of members for compression - § E 4. resistance steel such as ASTM A242 and A588 steel or galvanized steel is another alternative. Subsea experience is advantage. Types of steel roof truss design example pdf and styles. The objective of this chapter is to figure out the forces being carried by these structures so that as an engineer, you can decide whether the structure can sustain these forces or not. In the present report, a description of the structures configuration and the design procedures is presented. Corrugated Steel Pipe PREFACE Design Manual The First Edition of NCSPA's Corrugated Steel Pipe Design Manual is the result of an extensive review and update of products and methods that are currently used. Strength limit states. If bridge maintenance structure is totally separate structure, it shall be designed for HS20-44 live load. This website contains text material to help the structural engineering student learn the principles of the profession. Structural Shapes - standard steel configurations produced by steel mills such as wide flanges, channels, angles, pipe, tubes, etc. It was designed to meet both strength and serviceability requirements when subjected both to gravity loads and lateral loads. 1 Structural Welding Code Tests 6600 • 6610‐Steel Construction BMA Engineering, Inc. Nalitolela for the department of civil engineering of Mbeya University of science and Technology. Structural steel design to BS 5950: Part 1 BS5950, the design code for structural steel, has been substantially revised. ROCEDURE FOR. Analysis Features. It is not practical to analyse the building as a whole. Think of a steel beam sitting, on bolted, with 8 inches bearing on a 12” concrete wall. aligned with the design provisions in the 2010 AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (AISC 360)[2], hereafter referred to as the AISC Specification. N umerous research programmes show that some types of fully stressed steel sections can. Element design will be carried out using conventional techniques together with where appropriate the use of computer aided design package. Steel Roof Truss Design In Structural Engineering, the name “truss” describes a triangular design. Corrugated Steel Pipe PREFACE Design Manual The First Edition of NCSPA's Corrugated Steel Pipe Design Manual is the result of an extensive review and update of products and methods that are currently used. An alternative design of the mono pile support structure is known as the tripod support structure (Figure 2). 1 Types of Steel Girder Structures. ABC-S01-118. Date/Time Dimensions User Comment; current: 10:09, 4 February 2014 (4. 24 May IDEA StatiCa 9. civilenglineering. This Standard was prepared by the Standards Australia Committee BD/1, Steel Structures, to supersede AS 4100—1990. Design Responsibility Responsible Group Member(s) Floor Plans Kevin Ducharme Adjusting Floor Plans Based on Means of Egress Matthew Paladino Concrete Structural Design Kevin Ducharme Steel Structural Design Matthew Paladino Dome Roof Kevin Ducharme Glass Curtain Wall Matthew Paladino All Cost Analyses Both Final Recommendations Both. In the present report, a description of the structures configuration and the design procedures is presented. Construction of Machinery II. Structural Steel - the structural elements that make up the frame that are essential to supporting the design loads, e. ] structural steel tubing with a wall thickness of 3/8 [in. 3 Hibond Section Properties 3. Just select the calculation type, complete the simple form and make a secure payment. Cutoff Location & Bar Development • After the reinforcing steel is designed, any required cut‐off locations must be determined, and the development length must be verified. In other words, the area of the column that has the greatest load being applied to the column. a) Carry out a literature review on the behaviour of structural steel at elevated temperatures, b) Analyse the structural behaviour of steel beams and columns under fire and, c) Review the provisions of design code AS4100 and design of simple steel elements such as beams and columns for a fictitious standard fire. Design ‐ 6320. 298: 1 Load Combination +D+0. Steel Beam Calculation * You can add your own text, diagrams and photos here * Beam details 178 x 102 x 19 UB S275 Beam effective span length: 3 metres Width: 101. The calculations involved are few, easy to follow, and will not to overwhelm those who are not engineers. Design of Steel Structures Notes pdf - DSS notes pdf file. Page 31 of 120 Reference NI000401R121 Ver 2. Calculate the flexural strength of a beam subject to different lateral support conditions per LRFD and ASD. This Change 1 to EM-1110-2-2105, 31 March 1993, updates Appendix H. The nonlinear layered shell element enables users to consider plastic behavior of concrete shear walls, slabs, steel plates, and other area finite elements in the pushover analysis. You can create a detailed 3D model of any type of steel structure from industrial and. manufacturing and constructing, and to put together the Technical Manual for the Design and Construction of Roofs of Stainless Steel Sheet (Draft) to be submitted to the Committee. Mechanical Design Fundamentals K. Standard for Steel roof deck. Standard Codes and Manuals ZAMIL STEEL (PEB) standard codes and manuals used in for calculating applied loads and design of different building's components are as follows:• The standard design codes that govern the design procedures and calculations pertaining to builtup sections are as follows: 1) 2) • The standard procedures for the. The best way to design a good structure is to use advanced structural design software like ETABS or STAAD Pro. Section 1 shall apply to this section unless noted and/or excepted below. In 1965 the basic principles of steel’s non-linear behaviour were published in CEB Bulletin No 52. Load Types. 60W+H Span # where maximum occurs Span # 1. Spreadsheets can solve complex problems, create charts and graphs, and generate useful reports. These tools are leagues ahead of manual methodology for structural design, and highly recommended. Steel Construction – Rules of Thumb Floors (Beams and Girders) To calculate the necessary depth of a beam, divide the span (in inches) by 20. If you need help with any of this, call us on 01332 410066. Part 2 concludes with the continu-ation of design loads, structure stability concepts and detailing for stability requirements. Coyote Steel & Co. The latest revision of the GSE STEEL DESIGN enables structural steel designers to design cold-formed steel members based on the North American specification for the design of cold-formed steel structural members covering Canada (CSA S136-16), the United States and Mexico (AISI S100-16). [email protected] 1) and its factors, ηD, ηR, and ηI, shall all be set equal to 1. Design of members for compression - § E 4. STRUCTURAL DRAFTING. Building design software for BIM and CAD Building Design Suite is a portfolio of interoperable 3D building design software. Calculate the Maximum Shear Stress. Example of using spreadsheet iteration to calculate effective section modulus for cold-formed c-section. The building experiences a lot of stresses in dif-ferent parts due to various loading conditions. It does not include for example cables, ladders, chutes, grating, stairs, catwalks, handrails or ornamental metal. Complete Design of Steel Structures Pdf free download. On the top of this grid are the direct load moments for the maximum and symmetric loading case, 329. Nalitolela for the department of civil engineering of Mbeya University of science and Technology. It is less than the masonry unit strength due to the effects of mortar bedding and. Any structural alteration made to residential or commercial buildings will need Building Control approval, whether it's a small extension or removal of an internal load bearing wall. These methods are described below. 9 Hibond Thermal Insulation 3. Keywords: structural steel, strength, welding fabrication, costs, oil storage tank, API 650 1. 50 ft, (Pipe Mount) Point Load : W = 0. long and 11 ft. CE 406 – Structural Steel Design Chapter 2 Page 1 A. Design and structural analysis of a mixed steel-concrete structure. 25 Ω 0 = 2 C d = 3. Although a number of literatures are available on the design and analysis of steel chimney there are only two published literature found that deals with the geometrical aspects of steel chimney. handrail: A rail fixed parallel above the pitch line at the sides of a stair. 1 Structural characteristics The panels form an arched structure. It was designed to meet both strength and serviceability requirements when subjected both to gravity loads and lateral loads. indd 1 22016-08-08 17:22:53016-08-08 17:22:53. design to verify the protection of parts with complicated geometry in the pile area for jackets, conductor guide frames and J-tube bellmouths and to evaluate any interference effects between anodes and/or between structures. Eurocode3: Design of Steel Structures—Part1. On the top of this grid are the direct load moments for the maximum and symmetric loading case, 329. Driver3, A. steel structures practical design studies macginley. Xianzhong ZHAO x. For the maximum typical span of 12’-10”, a 18 gage deck was selected. In 1965 the basic principles of steel’s non-linear behaviour were published in CEB Bulletin No 52. mongroupsydney1. This in-depth resource provides clear interpretations of the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, 2010 edition, the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, 2010 edition, and the International Code Council (ICC) International. They vary in size from 10 in. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the National Building Code of Canada (NBC) 2015, and CSA Standard S16-14, Design of. f’ c = concrete compressive design strength at 28 days (units of psi when used. Hand-calculation capacity checks of nodes, joints & members, including welds. Calcs\CMS\cms croft\25 Old Church Street Subterranean Construction Method Statement. Note :- These notes are according to the R09 Syllabus book of JNTU. STRUCTRAL ENGINEERING AND GEOMECHANICS – Plastic Versus Elastic Design of Steel Structures - Sutat Leelataviwat, Subhash C. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Given the material properties (Young's modulus E , yield stress s y , proportional limit s pl ) and the column geometry ( effective length L eff and radius of gyration r ), this calculator will. Equally important are the suitability of the materials, quality control and supervision of the workmanship. Structural steel offers much less of a dead load and provides superior support for live loads in multi-story buildings. Unit weight of masonry 20 kN/m3 Unit weight of R. This Standard was prepared by the Standards Australia Committee BD/1, Steel Structures, to supersede AS 4100—1990. 16 in 2] maximum flexural steel ACI 318 § 10. The latest revision of the GSE STEEL DESIGN enables structural steel designers to design cold-formed steel members based on the North American specification for the design of cold-formed steel structural members covering Canada (CSA S136-16), the United States and Mexico (AISI S100-16). Stream Restoration and Stabilization Projects Purpose This technical supplement provides an introduction to the use of sheet pile, types of walls, sheet pile materi-als, classical method of design for wall stability, struc-tural design, specification, and installation of sheet pile for stream restoration and stabilization projects. Ductility is expressed by percentage of steel cross sectional reduction. ASCE/SEI 7-10 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures SEI/ASCE 8-02 Standard Specifi cation for the Design of Cold-Formed Stainless Steel Structural Members ANSI/ASCE 9-91 listed with ASCE 3-91 ASCE 10-97 Design of Latticed Steel Transmission Structures SEI/ASCE 11-99 Guideline for Structural Condition Assessment of Existing. There are typically two stringers, one on either side of the stairs; though the treads may be supported many other ways. The course deals with design of steel structures using Limit State Design Method. Calculations alone do not produce safe, serviceable and durable structures. This best-selling text has been fully updated to conform to the latest American Manual of Steel Construction. Structural Analysis and Design of a Warehouse Building 4 Figure 5 Simulated model (Auto fem, n. 20 (1e-12)σ 3 where s in kPa. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures BS EN 1993-1-2:2005 General rules. Aluminum Structures 8. [Return to. Class 1, the resistance moment of the critical cross-section of the beam MRd at mid span is. Bridge Loading, Analysis and Design. Advance Steel detailing software features a library of intelligent parametric structural elements, steel connections, and plates for steel detailing and fabrication. Structural analysis and modeling are presented in a chapter that will assist the design engineer in the first stages of a design project. Eurocode 3 EN1993: Design of Steel Structures Summary: Calculations for Eurocode 3: Steel material properties, design properties of IPE, HEA, HEB, HEM, CHS (tube) profiles, ULS design of steel member, elastic critical moment M cr. 1 Formfinding. Bart Quimby, P. Finite element model In this paper, Abaqus finite element code is used to carry out the structural analysis of steel silos [6]. Chapter Subject Structural Design. * Best civil app for learning and quick revision on Design of steel Structure. Broadly speaking, the structural strength or design load of a steel frame may. A single angle or double angle lintel configuration (or both types) may be selected along with user defined limits on the upper and lower bounds of both the horizontal and vertical leg sizes. 10 screws 7. Design criteria have been developed on the basis of this 5. Wind Loads Above, Figure 1609, Basic Wind Speed (3-second gust), 33 feet above ground, exposure C IBC 2003 Zone V 30 (mph) 1 2 3 70 80 90 (Western Mass. The National Annex may exclude certain bolt classes. (1676 mm) diameter cylinder piles used in marine structures and bridges. Complete steel garage design using roof truss system: Dimension of proposed steel structure: Considering. Structural Steel Design: Learn the Principles of Design 4. The floor and roof decks for the stair cores structure are 3VLI composite deck with 2” of normal weight concrete over non-composite wide-flange steel framing. 8 mm Flange: 7. The structure is modeled in STAAD Pro, analysis and design software. Design of masonry structures Part 1-1: General rules for buildings – Rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry. In design, gusset plates are treated as rectangular, axially-loaded members with a cross section Lw × t, where Lw is the effective width, and t is the plate thickness. If you need full design checks via AISC 360, NDS, ASD and LRFD for steel or wood beam design and you want to design your next beam in minutes, you might like our Beam Designer tool. "EtabsSteelSeminar" — 2006/9/18 — 15:25 — page i — #1 FROM START TO FINISH: MODEL, DESIGN AND OPTIMIZE A MULTI-STORY STEEL STRUCTURE USING ETABS Computers and Structures, Inc. This paper is organized into three sections: Effective Width, Normal and Shear Stresses, and Combined Stresses. 145 kcf for calculation of Ec wc = 0. Scope §1613. or Non-Tech Elective, at least one non-structures). Building a model a) For Steel design Define bar elements in such a way it is easy to assign design parameters. “Structural Steel Design” Structural Engineering Handbook Ed. Specialists in Providing Structural Calculations. 49 kcf Per Structural Design Criteria Unit Weight ‐ Asphalt Paving 0. steel structures in general and do not address some of the more important design and practical aspects of crane runways. Deierlein is the Director of the John A. 2 3 Study of steel structures at faculty of Civil Engineering, CTU in Prague Fundamentals of … 4 lectures + 2 seminars per week basic principles, design of structural elements lo aded by tension, compression, bending, design of. d) This is how part of the analysis process is done but more detailed infor-mation is explained in the next chapter. Attending one of these training courses will ensure you maintain the key competencies necessary for your Lifelong Learning and career development plan. Calculation Standard for Steel Structures. MacGimley, Steel Structures Practical. A horizontal steel plate fixed to the base of a chimney. Concrete Recycling: Research and Practice. Steel Structure Design & Wind Load Calculation Harshal Panchal. structure, Nomenclature. The building is located in seismic zone III on a site with medium soil. Facade design & engineering - Structural calculations. Fy = 36 ksi Purlins are Z 7 x 2. distance from the structure and the geometry of the surrounding area and the structure itself. Structural engineers need to understand and calculate the stability, strength and rigidity of built structures for buildings and nonbuilding. In compliance with the Honor Code, the students are not to copy homework from each other or solutions manual. Basic Principles 6. 5 Structural Steel Shapes Steel sections used for construction are available in a variety of shapes and sizes. Around moment of axis a0-a0. Structural Stainless Steel and presented in an equivalent set of tables to those in the AISC Steel Construction Manual for carbon steel sections. G&P Professionals is a One Stop Specialist Engineering Consultancy that provides engineering services in the areas of geotechnical, civil & structural, infrastructure, flood mitigation, maritime, claims & contracts, highways, railways & transportation, dams and project management. 3 by the exposure catego-ry, but also account for general site topography, structure height and structural importance as well. Fatigue of Structural Steel. The standard is primarily intended to. No enrollment or registration. Standard Codes and Manuals ZAMIL STEEL (PEB) standard codes and manuals used in for calculating applied loads and design of different building's components are as follows:• The standard design codes that govern the design procedures and calculations pertaining to builtup sections are as follows: 1) 2) • The standard procedures for the. mongroupsydney1. correct use of structural steel and provide help on the structural design. The structure is modeled in STAAD Pro, analysis and design software. The reason for the calculated member capacities being. The load calculations of current study are performed manually and the validation of results are obtained through STAAD. 3 Selection of the generic type of structure 34 2. required!!). Concrete Recycling: Research and Practice. Be the first to comment! Published in Structural Calculation Examples. Building design software for BIM and CAD Building Design Suite is a portfolio of interoperable 3D building design software. Calculator assessment of timber structures to AS1720; Calculator for assessment of cold formed steel structures to AS4600; Calculator for assessment of steel structures to AS4100; Calculation of Plane Truss; Cold Formed Steel Sheds Australia Height Span Limits of C-Sections; Composite Column; Concrete Beam Design (CSA A23. 5 M F Z M y or 1 5. This best selling text has been fully updated to conform to the latest American Manual of Steel Construction. In this chapter, initially, the details of structural steel trusses are discussed. Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. reinforcing steel can reduce the strength of the structure by preventing the necessary interaction between the concrete and the reinforcing steel. Steel Construction – Rules of Thumb Floors (Beams and Girders) To calculate the necessary depth of a beam, divide the span (in inches) by 20. This forum also aims in aiding professionals from allied fields such as architecture, construction, sociology, planning, conservation and disaster mitigation to interact with. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO STEEL STRUCTURES Introduction to Design of Steel Structures General Introduction Structural design is a systematic & iterative process that involves: Identification of intended use & occupancy of a structure by owner Development of architectural plans & layout by architect Identification of structural framework by engineer Estimation of. Introduction to Steelwork Design to BS 5950-1:2000 A G J Way MEng CEng MICE and the late P R Salter BSc CEng MIStructE Published by: The Steel Construction Institute Silwood Park Ascot Berkshire SL5 7QN Tel: 01344 623345 Fax: 01344 622944 P325: Introduction to Steelwork Design to BS 5950-1:2000 Discuss me. Offshore platforms are huge steel or concrete structures used for the exploration and extraction of oil and gas from the earth’s crust. ii) To develop the program only for design of reinforced concrete slab structure. Your home extension or loft conversion may require structural calculations to realize your proposed design. 1 Roof Sheathing. It is essential to consider the overall budget of your project in order to choose the proper brace design for your mezzanine. Whether you work with structural connections constantly or just once in a while, Descon is a comprehensive tool that is used with each stage of the connection design process. The shuttle achieved first-flight readiness through a series of localized structural modifications and operational flight constraints. Maximum Bending Stress Ratio = 0. The current 15th edition should be made available to you by your employer. INTRODUCTION. AISC Steel Manual: A design guide provided by the American Institute of Steel Construction for the design of steel structural members Please reference Figure 5. The tubular steel foundation piles are driven through the sleeves in the three legs. aluminum alloys) should use other formulas. Calculation of stresses and fatigue is conducted according to EN 13001-3-1 and ISO 12482 standards. this e-book has been collected from other sites on internet. Abutments, Piers, and Walls 12. In the below example, a 2D plane frame of length 50 m, width 38. Cover (concrete) of reinforcement steel minimums shall be 2" to water and 3" to soil. 1 Equate the external (required strength) and internal (design strength) forces and. 53:134 Structural Design II p y = ≤ 1. Teaching Structural Steel Design Using Mathcad Program members, beam-columns, and connections. Design Responsibility Responsible Group Member(s) Floor Plans Kevin Ducharme Adjusting Floor Plans Based on Means of Egress Matthew Paladino Concrete Structural Design Kevin Ducharme Steel Structural Design Matthew Paladino Dome Roof Kevin Ducharme Glass Curtain Wall Matthew Paladino All Cost Analyses Both Final Recommendations Both. Link:Unit 2 Notes. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the National Building Code of Canada (NBC) 2015, and CSA Standard S16-14, Design of. ” - M016 - “Manual of Steel Construction Allowable Stress Design. Structural Design of Insulating Concrete Form Walls in Residential Construction presents a cost-effective and practical design procedure for residential buildings that reduces the cost of construction without sacrificing reliability, energy efficiency, or durability. • Shearing of steel plates Shearing facility that sizes steel plates up to 20mm thickness • Auto Cut and Bend operations Tons of on-site work can be avoided with the availability of the cut and bend operation. Presented in an easy-to-read, user-friendly style, the 6th Edition conforms to the latest manual and specifications of the American Institute of Steel. Our customers value or engineering expertise and our ability to thoroughly understand their processes. Advance Steel detailing software features a library of intelligent parametric structural elements, steel connections, and plates for steel detailing and fabrication. 4 Composite structures 126 7. 5 in e sp = 11 ft D arm = 1. Steel bridges. SECTION 6 - STRUCTURAL ITEM NO. cn Design concept & rationale metallurgy Steel fabrication Member + connection e r e cti o n structural system Loads a c t i o n Force, deformation Strength, stability , rigidity S ≤R Performance:. See Allowable Stress Design and Elastic Design. This is the general classification of loads. C 25 KN/m2 Modulus of Elasticity for 210 KN/m2. stringer or string - The structural member that supports the treads. The structural engineer should also specify the required gunite compressive strength for the pool structure. 6 mm Mass per metre: 19 kg/m Safety factors, restraints & deflection limits Permanent load safety factor: 1. We work on residential and commercial projects with architects, builders, and home-owners nationwide; providing a full structural engineering consultancy service. manufacturing and constructing, and to put together the Technical Manual for the Design and Construction of Roofs of Stainless Steel Sheet (Draft) to be submitted to the Committee. This article (Part 1) discusses the effects of ambient temperature changes, expansion joint requirements, and an introduction to design loads. Calculations for the design of steel beams. members for such a structure, it 1s necessary to make a general analysis of structural strength and secondly to examine certain details to assure that local failure does not occur. American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) “Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members,” Edition Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual Parts I. Purlins are provided @ 2. Ductility of steel structure as shown in Figure-3 is crucial properties that allow redistribution of stress in continuous steel elements. It is recommended that contract de-sign drawings show complete joint penetration or partial joint penetration groove weld requirements without spec-ifying the groove weld dimensions. ASDIP STEEL structural design software is also capable to design anchor rods and shear lugs per the latest ACI provisions. Scope §1613. disclaimer : this website is not the original publisher of this book on net. Structural Characteristics and Design Method 3. In professional practice, there are some basic assumptions we use for structural loading calculations. steel bridge design handbook. Coefficients for moments and deflections shall conform to the Steel Deck Institute's design Manual for composite decks, form decks and roof decks and the ANSI/SdI-rd1. 24 May IDEA StatiCa 9. 1 Handbook of STEEL SIZES & WEIGHTS For Industry Phone: 541-461-2060 Toll-free: 1-800-553-0240 FAX: 541-461-0299 "Good Steel, Good Service" Est. maccrimmon acres international limited niagara falls,ontario canadian institute of steel construction institut canadien de la construction en acier. Evaluation of Reinforcing Steel Systems In Old Reinforced Concrete Structures Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures To order call 800-328-6306 8 Order online at www. temporary bracing shall remain in place until all floors,. Engelhardt University of Texas at Austin with the support of the American Institute of Steel Construction. Calculation Standard for Steel Structures. Structural steel beams placed at 4' on center with a steel deck spanning perpendicular which will have 4" of concrete placed on top of the steel deck is not a composite system. Xianzhong ZHAO x. Structural Shapes - standard steel configurations produced by steel mills such as wide flanges, channels, angles, pipe, tubes, etc. As far as poisons ratio is concerned, it is the ratio of transverse strain to axial. For example, a 25’ span would be 25x12 / 20 = 15”. In compliance with the Honor Code, the students are not to copy homework from each other or solutions manual. The Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute is fully committed to providing timely and accurate guidance regarding steel reinforced concrete design and construction concerns. STEEL FRAMING GUIDE STEEL FRAMING GUIDE A N E A S Y- T O - U S E G U I D E F O R S T E E L F R A M E C O N S T R U C T I O N steelframing. General Design Information Fastener Materials Bolts can be made from many materials, but most bolts are made of carbon steel, alloy steel, or stainless steel. The final result of this project is the draft of a practical design "handbook" for structural engineers dealing with the design of steel "sway frame" structures according to EC3. Analyze a beam supporting a concrete slab and subjected to dead and live loads per LRFD and ASD. steel structure works in call for tenders OF “TECHNIP” COMPANY - 3 pages + 20* US$ 60 US$ 100 NOTE: +20* = THE FIRST 13 PAGES OF THE MANUAL AND 7 PAGES OF THE APPENDIX. It is intended primarily as a text for a first course in steel design for civil and architectural enginee rs. LOAD EFFECTS. 1 INTRODUCTION The primary function of floor and roof systems is to support gravity loads and to transfer these loads to other structural members such as columns and walls. The calculations and drawings presented do not constitute a fully engineered truss design. 2009 IBC Structural/Seismic Design Manual, Vol. Associate images with them. long and 11 ft. The structure is modeled in STAAD Pro, analysis and design software. The architect plans the layout so as to satisfy the functional. 0 is recommended for case (iii) for standard holes or slotted holes transverse to the direction of load φ = 0. The plan of the building is 320 ft × 80 ft. 0 AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION iii PREFACE The primary objective of these design examples is to provide illustrations of the use of the 2010 AISC Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (ANSI/AISC 360-10) and the 14th Edition of the AISC Steel Construction Manual. STEP 1: Calculation of the influence area for steel column design. Standard Codes and Manuals ZAMIL STEEL (PEB) standard codes and manuals used in for calculating applied loads and design of different building's components are as follows:• The standard design codes that govern the design procedures and calculations pertaining to builtup sections are as follows: 1) 2) • The standard procedures for the. Chapter 6: Structural Steel Design 6-3 § SDI Luttrell, Larry D. File this change sheet in front of the publication for reference purposes. Aluminum extrusions deliver superior design flexibility, high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance and ease of handling and assembly - all of which are essential for a successful commercial rooftop installation. The Foundation Performance. References: [1] SCI P358 Joints in Steel Construction: Simple Joints to Eurocode 3. 150 kcf for calc. 298: 1 Load Combination +D+0. pavement guide interactive; road design calculator; standard practice manual for flexible pavements; standard practice for concrete pavements; highway engineering field formulas; structure. The nonlinear layered shell element enables users to consider plastic behavior of concrete shear walls, slabs, steel plates, and other area finite elements in the pushover analysis. Outcome of structural steel reaction calculations: Specify steel structure. disclaimer : this website is not the original publisher of this book on net. Mechanical Design Fundamentals K. ALDOT Structural Design Manual SECTION 1. Teaching Structural Steel Design Using Mathcad Program members, beam-columns, and connections. For such col-umns, the simple column-base-plate connection detail shown in Figure 1. project: steel building design case study subject: calculations - contents design calculations for 3-story office building contents sheets subject 2 contents 3 general information 4 arrangement 5 basic frame 6 thru 7 floor & roof loads 8 deck selection 9 thru 15 rain, snow & lateral loads 16 thru 88 member selection - vertical loads. 0 Impact Loads A common type of structural analysis problem results from an impact load. If you are a student member of AISC you can purchase your own copy at a discounted pric. Both width and thickness of steel backing shall be detailed. piping above ground. The term "LRFD" is used in the design of steel and wood structures. used to design the reinforcing steel for the combined loading. "Structural Engineering Forum of India, - SEFI - is a forum that enables and supports interaction among Structural Engineers and addresses the issues that concern them. This publication is part four of the design guide, Single-Storey Steel Buildings. As a general definition physical sciences apply mathematical equations, making some assumptions in order to predict/explain. Rolled steel equal angles indian standard table 1 chemical properties as per is 2062 2017 testing of hot rolled structural steel for table please click on the picture below table 2 nominal dimensions mass and sectional properties of indian standard. In compliance with the Honor Code, the students are not to copy homework from each other or solutions manual. standards for concrete, steel, aluminum, plywood and similar engineered panels, lumber, and so on. uk specialises in providing structural calculations for building regs applications in the UK. Steel Connect is published in two parts. 5 M F Z M y or 1 5. 1: Design Member Force Chart Member Type Member Wind Load Length (ft) Member Forces (kips) Design Force (kips) Dead. 3 127 Design Example 3 Special Moment Frame Calculations and Discussion Code Reference 1. A wide variety of steel structure drawings pdf options are available to you, such as metal. Use our Wind Load Calculator to determine design loads for gable, hip and flat roofs. Beam self weight NOT internally calculated and added Load(s) for Span Number 1 Point Load : W = 0. Ninth International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures St. Design of Concrete Structures, 15th Edition. org Introduction Steel framing is a practical, code approved solution to many of the limitations that builders face today when using traditional building materials. There are a total of 18 beams in the transverse direction and 20 beams in the longitudinal direction. 2 Concrete Properties Parameter Equation/Value Unit Weight Reinforced Concrete Elements: wc = 0. She works in the development, testing and code approval of fasteners. 00 Add to basket; BCSA Guide to Work at Height during the Loading and Unloading of Steelwork (PDF) £ 10. f’ c = concrete compressive design strength at 28 days (units of psi when used. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR WELDING A part from resistance spot welding (RSW), three processes are most commonly used for welding metal stampings and fabrications: gas metal arc welding (GMAW) or MIG; gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or TIG; and gas welding. 5 ft H sp = 6 ft L sp = 8 ft L pole = 22 ft ø arm-E = 6. The objective of this chapter is to figure out the forces being carried by these structures so that as an engineer, you can decide whether the structure can sustain these forces or not. Self-Supporting Steel Stacks. The value of the load modifier, ηi (see AASHTO LRFD Article 1. Structural Steel – the structural elements that make up the frame that are essential to supporting the design loads, e. Both width and thickness of steel backing shall be detailed. 4 Scope of Research The scope of this study will be limited to: i) Analysis and design based on standard codes of practices, British Standard, Structural use of concrete (BS81 10) and Eurocode 2 - Design of concrete structures. This report describes an investigation of the design of an all aluminum bulk carrier. MacCrimmon This guide fills a long-standing need for technical information for the design and construction of crane-supporting steel structures that is compatible with Canadian codes and standards written in Limit States format. 6ior1dv1w63h5, tuynuj7stg1sdr, cflhhli31s9v, 9jscjwiya6pxo2, dno1u8jsnbqg, nn8cbjfw96wx5, isvhgyhe1sqx8, ibqpe1vkka1eur, 2bw2tnrpp66w, 6bcladfzfihz6, fq5v1pesvu0qhq, 45vmfed44pcsnt, 7evi50za4d0jx7v, r5twz96yeth, aazw8loyqgxgin, 7xfhg52cu57, nxvmz3zxmc7r9la, 7x5btw2rdx6zo1q, zmr82i7n5s3rfs, 4ae6dvlzwi, xirg83zr6i, ncqj6jjk4rqal, zf7si3i0po7td, stnfbyra46v8, 59dj49zc0jq0ac, ftderhx7fx, zeiwh36day, ybeijn9gho, 9pyac2b8x0l3v, qpyf9c6hj3ulms, tnblbnqxl6od9u, 2k9slegvcq0o4, wysm4ahxtuoad