Grade Resistance of Tractor 3. Research shows that about 20% to 55% of the available tractor energy is wasted at the tractive device/soil interface. Drawbar pull is the difference between tractive effort available and tractive effort required to overcome resistance at a specified speed. Amperage to Tractive Effort table for an SD40-2 Several people have asked me if I have an Amps to Tractive Effort chart. are the parameters of the resistance function; M is the mass of the train; i is the section slope; vt() is the speed at time t; vcr is the cruising speed; v. The tractive effort and braking curves are illustrated in the following figure. But it doesnt provide realistic values, so i am wondering, what is the correct way of calculating tractive effort of a train? Thanks. the engine throu gh the drivetrain and finally through the tractive device. 5 6704 3041 3rd 23. Very truly yours, Ass' t General Sales Enc. a) Formulate the expression for the tractive effort during acceleration period of a locomotive train. Upon a pulling action, the tractive effort applied to the wire rope must never exceed the nominal load capacity of the lifting winch. Therefore, Tractive Effort was more important than HorsePower for steam locomotives. The actual tractive effort is calculated from. Speed/tractive effort curve for a modern locomotive Tractive effort is measured in pounds of force available as a function of speed At low speed, tractive REES Module #3 - Train Energy, Power and Traffic Control 28 Stopping the train • From a safety standpoint, stopping the train is even more important than accelerating it. Total Tractive Effort is the net horizontal force applied by the drive wheels to the ground. We found out our equipment has elite drawbar pull and tractive effort giving you more power when you need it. calculate; a) power of the engine. Available Tractive Effort Tractive effort determined by: Force of vehicle’s engine Maximum value transferable Maximum Tractive Effort Define the point at which additional engine-generated tractive effort is not productive. tractiveeffort. Where, Ft = tractive force available at tyre or vehicle out which can be converted to tractive. namic resistance can account for over 90% of the tractive effort at higher train speeds [12 through 19]. 0 m/s²) Max. Ftmax maximum tractive effort, (N). Big Boy Locomotive Weights and Dimensions. taking it beyond its resistance limit) with a minimum energy consumption and at the same time being able to transfer to the soil the maximum tractive effort (i. Calculate the force in the rope and hence the power used. Other researchers appear to use the term tractive effort instead of tractive force [24]. 14 CRAWLER DOZERS Table 1. Traction system – power supply, traction drives, electric braking, tractive effort calculations and speed- time characteristics. All the equipment for getting electric power to the wayside, bringing it into the train, converting it to mechanical energy, and providing tractive effort is external to the train control system. Tractive effort at ~ xG, X 0. traditional starting ratio that delivers the optimal tractive effort needed. Also, the Derived Torque shape will be the same shape as Roller torque for a manual car, but can be quite different and. "Tractive effort" (TE) is the force applied by a locomotive for moving itself and a train. 26,460 pounds (12,002 kilograms) Two Couplers. the engine throu gh the drivetrain and finally through the tractive device. ¾ Parameters considered: 1. Tractive force and power characteristics of a 310. grades and grade resistance 3-1 3. in the constant power region at the most of the travel time. tractive effort to pull the rail successfully. Analysis of electric vehicle is required to get the suitable size of the induction motor and battery source. Tire Traction can also refer to the maximum tractive force between a body and a surface, as limited by available friction; when this is the case, traction is often expressed as the ratio of the maximum tractive force to the normal force and is termed the. tractive effort. 8) 𝑉= 30 0 (3. Draw pretty graphs to provide information in a more readily understandable visual format. It consists of 1 TRAXX F140 MS Electric locomotive from Bombardier. Please do not modify it. (On higher speed vehicles friction in drive components may warrant the addition of 10%-15% to the total tractive effort to ensure acceptable vehicle performance. Tractive Effort The tractive effort can be estimated with the aid of Eq. Report prepared by: BNSF Railway Company. txt) or view presentation slides online. 7457 kW 100 kPa = 14. Estimation of the traction power of agricultural tractors from dynamometric tests. STE is the amount of tractive effort that must be produced by the motive power to start moving a train from a dead stop without slipping the wheels. fa frequency recorded by ground speed sensor. The articulated spatial Robotic Arm designed has jointed spherical arm type geometry with 6 degrees of freedom. traffic and terminals. In the case of the third locomotive, the tractive forces are slightly higher due to the better steering, and the differences in tractive. With fewer motors generating the tractive effort, each motor needs to be more powerful. As a result of the thesis a calculating tool for creating tractive effort curves for different powertrain assemblies was manufactured. Formula to be used are: 1. Principles of powering and regenerative braking; blended regenerative and rheostatic brake control. 3 Least Squares Differentiator 42 4. The transmission control module 132 may use any suitable algorithm to calculate or determine the tractive effort as a function of. Wheel Slipping -The wheel rotating on its axis with motion existing between the. gearbox (1 st) gear ratio, i x = 4. ) 0 2500 5000 7500 10000 12500 15000 17500 20000 22500 25000 27500 30000 Tractive Effort (N) Speed (kph) CM-51-EC ( S. Grade Resistance of Tractor 3. Sd = DragArea = Cd A (1) where Cd = drag coefficient of rail car at zero degrees yaw and A = reference area (projected frontal area of rail car) Fig. per ton of the weight on the axle; and for truck wagons, which have medium-sized wheels and axles. controller. 4m curve : 330 grams. These motors are typically forced cooled from an external fan, an arrangement that requires a high degree of integration into the car body. The tractive effort required to move a train consists of numerous factors, but for most applications only four need to be considered. The tractive efficiency concept used is identical to that introduced by Wismer and Luth for wheeled vehicles. The maximum tensile strength of current couplers is considered to be 400,000 pounds. This article describes the mobile performance of a novel vehicle with segmented rubber tracks on a low. The application of D'Alembert's principle is thus the application of Newton's second and third laws of motion with the inertial reaction ma, considered as an external force. Panel L 4L 5: Loaded length = 30 m Tractive effort = 637. A rocket flies at 120 m/s under a propulsion force of 3 000 N. Motor 4kw with 3000 set rpm 2. temperature is higher than The desired p. The tractive effort required to move a train consists of numerous factors, but for most applications only four need to be considered. Vehicle Performance Prediction viz. Acceleration is a measure of how quickly you are gaining or losing speed. pdf), Text File (. hoist's tractive effort states: SWP, time running, starts, overloads, temperature, load, brake, etc. This is the ratio of the tractive effort force just necessary slip the wheels on the track to the adhesive weight. Fig 6 shows that about 180 N of tractive effort on the locomotive coupling is enough to pull over a ton of load including the carriages. primary component of a system designed to provide a significant tractive or load-bearing effort to subsea cable or umbilical. Assume starting resistance for the train and locomotive as 4 and 6 Kg/T respectively. on level track. To calculate tractive effort it is adhesion factor multiplied by the weight on the driving wheels. Note: The figures presented below have been rounded to 3 decimal points to simplify presentation so may not give the precise answers shown when checking the figures. 0 m/s²) Max. To improve crossing ability, the most important performance factor for tracked vehicle systems operating on low-bearing capacity peats, and to minimize income losses that result from downtime and maintenance costs, a vehicle was designed in order to adapt to operating condition changes. For tractive effort, the friction coefficient is based on slip between the track and the ground (Wong, 2008). Example of a station (Olten, Switzerland). Le1 20/3 SÖ Running resistance, tractive effort, braking effort, adhesion 1*). The soil interaction of these machines plays a fundamental role in defining their characteristics, and features a peculiar need to compromise opposite needs: working the soil (i. The following discussion is closed. As the speed increases the effective pressure in the cylinders falls, and the full tractive effort of adhesion can not be had; moreover, with such boilers as have as yet been devised, the. Influence of Locomotive Tractive Effort on the Forces Between Wheel and Rail Article (PDF Available) in Vehicle System Dynamics 35(Supplement):7-22 · January 2001 with 1,064 Reads. allow the calculation of tractive effort for symmetric and narrow tools. Subsequent comments should be made in a new section. Ftmax maximum tractive effort, (N). The tractive efficiency concept used is identical to that introduced by Wismer and Luth for wheeled vehicles. Review of Past Work The earliest study of train aerodynamics reported in the literature involved small-scale wind tunnel tests performed during 1898 at Purdue University [20]. The power required to. doc Simulation of Railway Power Supply Systems position, effort, speed voltage, effort current effort Network Engine OpenPowerNet • Calculation of electrical load flow • Energy balance • Load analysis of equipment • Touch voltage • Electromagnetic field • Interaction of operation and design. Rolling stock data OpenTrack stores each locomotive’s technical characteristics, including tractive effort/speed diagrams, load, length, adhesion factor, and power systems. Coefficient of traction Edit Diagram of the longitudinal coefficient of adhesion (fx) in function of the speed and the weather conditions for the asphalt:. In this case, the drawbar pull of our example vehicle is 2,547 pounds. 4m curve : = 502 grams Deduct locomotive frictional resistance (excluding curve resistance): = 70 grams Starting tractive effort required at the wheeltread : = 432 grams. body is on an incline. Estimation of the traction power of agricultural tractors from dynamometric tests. Or Tractive force is nothing but the net force present at wheels. The articulated spatial Robotic Arm designed has jointed spherical arm type geometry with 6 degrees of freedom. Tractive effort to haul a passenger train at 75 MPH on level track: 190 grams Tractive effort to haul a passenger train on 1 in 70 + 2. Power Range Calculations 1. This graphic is also available as a PDF document. Acceleration Resistance of Tractor DRAWBAR PULL, MAXIMUM: The maximum towing force in pounds or Newtons at a specified coupler height that a truck will develop on a level surface. Car vehicle driving up a slope equation and calculator. DOZERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Slide No. Tractive Effort is a measure of the force that a locomotive can apply to the train it is pulling. These were also super­ heated. In the hill climb the vehicle stands at a slope of 260 , and it requires to accelerate on the slope. 7 Consideration should be given to the exclusion zone required in 1. beginning of the section it starts to coast, meaning no tractive or braking effort is applied afterwards. The objective of the simulation is to calculate tractive effort and resistance forces to determine longitudinal net vehicle force at the road. 4 Rolling Resistance 15. controller. 3 Auto kickdown motors sense changes in terrain to maximize travel speed and tractive effort. Tractive effort calculation for Motor selection including wheel slip, Steering performance predictions Driveline calculations & selection Brake calculations considering Electric bus weight distribution Steering system kinematic analysis using MBD. This calculator can be used to calculate the resulting force in a toggle joint with arms with equal lengths. Wet rail will knock adhesion down to about 18%, but sand will get you back to 22-25%. A typical high speed train TE versus speed diagram is shown below. The maximum tensile strength of current couplers is considered to be 400,000 pounds. A typical freight train powered by a Big Boy took four hours to go the 75 miles from Ogden to Evanston, Wyoming, consuming 20 tons of coal and 12 to 13 thousand gallons of water. 7 The combustion air is to be preheated by exhaust steam in a heat exchanger, situated immediately upstream of the ashpan, to a temperature of not less than 100 C (212 F). 4 Rolling Resistance 15. 2 m 2, for small and mid size cars C d = coefficient of aerodynamics resistance (drag coefficient) ≈ 0. Our initial product offering is the model TP56; an industrial switcher that offers better fuel savings, low maintenance, greater tractive effort with sufficient horsepower. It is known*, that the small "Planet" type engines of the period, [at 30 HP power output], produced a Tractive Effort (T. 7 Power required to propel vehicle 124 Power available 124 11. 1 are driven with no slip taking place between the tyres and the level road surface, the propelling force or tractive effort (TE) is equal to the torque at the driven wheels (T r) divided by their leverage, which is termed the rolling radius or effective radius (r). 1 Braking Forces 2. 7 cm Width 120" 304. 6 Available Tractive Effort 18. If a cross over the tractive effort curve would appear for the next gear by remaining in gear until maximum rpm, then a small, roughly triangular shaped section would be cut out of the available area every time when gear is changed. TEXT BOOK: 1. Electric Traction Motors: 7. Tractor performance is calculated by summing the individual wheel performances. Take one example I have one vehicle which has weight of 500kg. Or Tractive force is nothing but the net force present at wheels. Traction system – power supply, traction drives, electric braking, tractive effort calculations and speed- time characteristics. For tractional torque you have to calculate the traction force requirement by your vehicle. I've also suggested merging Power at rail - ie making 'power at rail' redirect to a subsection of this article dealing with the relationship between power at rail, speed and tractive. The investigational work re­. are CSXT's class CW44AH AC4400CWs, each of which is capable of producing a maximum tractive effort of 200,000 pounds. Other researchers appear to use the term tractive effort instead of tractive force [24]. The starter pack contains engine and gearbox files that VECTO needs for simulation. 1 Maximum Tractive Effort 18. 5 COSMOS Works simulation 20 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION. 80 for 𝜂 , and 14 in. TE = Vehicle tractive effort required to ascend the grade q = Grade Angle (degrees) G = Gradeability (percent) 4. System: input data in BOLD, Result in RED: Total tractive effort required by both front wheels, FTf (N). ET44AC - Tier 4-compliant version of the ES44AC, to begin production in summer. Automatic transmission, Steering and Front Axle. The method for calculation of tractive effort required for starting and hauling loads at particular speed, gradient and degree of curvature and also horse power, OHE current calculation is given in the following paragraphs. But this adhesive phenomenon has not been clearly examined or analyzed. The Class J will be able to pull 250 pounds of train at a constant 85 scale mph throughout a steaming session for standard-gauge live steam. To reach every point in the inverse kinematic analysis was done to position the arm. F = μ t W = μ t m a g (1). final drive ratio, i 0 = 3. This energy wears the tires and compacts the soil to a degree that may cause detrimental crop production (Burt et al. 33*(18) =60 Mt=60X106 *7. Introduction The intense electrotechnics development used in railway vehicles during last decades allowed us to install a high power into relatively small vehicles. Hi there again, I am trying to correctly calculate the tractive effort pf a train, currently i do this: Power/speedMpS = TractiveEffort I got that from here. 4: Students will demonstrate the ability to perform calculations necessary to support the design of series and parallel hybrid vehicles. of Motors/tract. vehicle speed with a traction motor of x 4 and two-gear transmission. 2 Braking Force Ratio and Efficiency. Hello everybody, I kindly ask if somebody can provide me with tractive effort tables (shaft force, wheel-force, any data is welcome) for F-3 / F-7 (GP-7) and GP-9 units at speeds 0-70 mp/h in 10 mp/h iterations?. Introduction to Highway Transportation Engineering, Module 02: The Vehicle, the Driver and the Roadway Part 2-B: Tractive Resistance. 33 s and 69. - the initial effort force is amplified near four times. An important aspect of daily life in the majority of persons with spinal cord injury. 2 Example Calculation for power available at wheel 18 3. 1mph for faster. 7 Kmphps and it is braked at 3. Speed/tractive effort curve for a modern locomotive Tractive effort is measured in pounds of force available as a function of speed At low speed, tractive REES Module #3 - Train Energy, Power and Traffic Control 28 Stopping the train • From a safety standpoint, stopping the train is even more important than accelerating it. 7 Stability of vehicle on slope 5. tractiveeffort. road wheel speed 19 3. so where would that come in to surly they couldent of just told you it for the sake of it. forums map | news magazine | posting guidelines. Tractive effort system and method Download PDF Info Publication number CN103068662A. i) Calculation of Tractive Effort to haul load as per RDSO's guidelines, effect of gradient on coupler forces etc. This defines the speed of the train and the needed power and tractive-/braking effort of the locomo-tive. SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Slide No. The exact location of your dog can be accessed directly via the free app. 3 Aerodynamic Resistance 12. The tractive efficiency concept used is identical to that introduced by Wismer and Luth for wheeled vehicles. 4m curve : 330 grams. The ωc is 100 (rad/sec). , hotel loads, trash compaction, boom operation, etc. COMPUTER: i) Knowledge of Computer Hardware like Mother board, CPU, Hard Drive,. 7 Vehicle Acceleration 25. • Calculations can be made to determine which gear is the best choice for a given towing or push-back operation. it provides greater tractive effort as compared to steam engine which results in higher start-ing acceleration. on level track. We ran this test on different machines, several times, to see which one was best equipped to push more dirt and heavier objects on the job site. 5 km per hour Turning circle 0 in / 0 m Duration of Batteries Moving an aircraft of 55,000 lbs / 25,000 kg at least 11,500 ft / 3,500 meters including nose wheel pick-ups and set- downs OR 3. 5 hours continuous movement with a 39,700 lbs / 18,000 kg aircraft Traction motors:. 8kN), which is intresting as the D57 was a bit more powerful then the 58 that was built as an improvement, but were infact not as good as the 57's. Fy force in vertical direction, (N). per ton of the weight on the axle; and for truck wagons, which have medium-sized wheels and axles. The force in the rope is 40 N and it moves 3 m in 11 seconds. force are actually components of tractive force. In the case of the third locomotive, the tractive forces are slightly higher due to the better steering, and the differences in tractive. Author: Houman Hatami Tel. Making use of D'Alembert's principle, determine: (i) The tractive effort between the wheels and the road surface. Boiler pressure was 200 pounds and the locomotives would exert 94,880 pounds tractive effort. 0670 US Toll Free: 800. 2 Example Calculation for power available at wheel 18 3. body is on an incline. To do this we will use the maximum tractive effort calculated in equation 9 which was 100 lbs. For a railway to operate efficiently and safely, its locomotives should be powerful enough to accelerate their trains rapidly to the maximum allowed line speed, and the braking systems must be able to bring a train reliably to a standstill at a station or signal, even on an adverse gradient. Power is the force needed to run a train at a certain speed. 3 The 3CX Contractor and 4CX’s heavy-duty lift rams provide 3. SCRAPERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Slide No. The fuel to satisfy tractive effort (adjusted by the ap-plication of supplemental power from a hybrid eergy n storage system) Fuel to charge the hybrid electric system 3. The OpenTrack railway operation simulation is realised by a constant time step calculation. A rocket flies at 120 m/s under a propulsion force of 3 000 N. 5 km per hour Turning circle 0 in / 0 m Duration of Batteries Moving an aircraft of 55,000 lbs / 25,000 kg at least 11,500 ft / 3,500 meters including nose wheel pick-ups and set- downs OR 3. Note: The figures presented below have been rounded to 3 decimal points to simplify presentation so may not give the precise answers shown when checking the figures. Figure 14: Graph of tractive effort values calculated using Equation 1 of the trips exhibiting large elevation loss. 7 Vehicle Acceleration 25. Tractive effort, acceleration and braking 1Tractive effort. Caterpillar Inc. Speed/tractive effort curve for a modern locomotive Tractive effort is measured in pounds of force available as a function of speed At low speed, tractive REES Module #3 - Train Energy, Power and Traffic Control 28 Stopping the train • From a safety standpoint, stopping the train is even more important than accelerating it. (1) Tractive Effort (example calculation) - To calculate the tractive effort for the maintenance tow of an empty B757 on a positive 2% slope (assume a rolling resistance of 2%). Firstly, this web page has an automatic calculator for tractive effort and power (albeit one has to put in a "loss factor" which is somewhat of a guess) for non-compound steam locomotives (most steam. The tractive power required to overcome the above axle friction for American carriages of the usual proportions is about 3 to 3i lb. 2 Tractive Effort and Resistance 2. In that case however, high discretization on the control variable is needed. Induction motor control: VVVF control, PWM control and CVVF control. electrical vehicles, traction motor characteristics, tractive effort, transmission requirement, vehicle performance and energy consumption. 4m curve : = 502 grams Deduct locomotive frictional resistance (excluding curve resistance): = 70 grams Starting tractive effort required at the wheeltread : = 432 grams. “The CVT automatically senses the load and delivers the toque and tractive effort that is needed to maintain the desired speed,” O’Neal adds. At the same time, the forward axle is shifted to a faster ratio. In most soil conditions, your tractor is operating at its best tractive. F A = Force due to air resistance. Horsepower and Tractive Effort Introduction to Simulation Physics#. Research shows that about 20% to 55% of the available tractor energy is wasted at the tractive device/soil interface. DOZERS ENCE 420 ©Assakkaf Slide No. μ t = traction - or friction - coefficient between the wheel and the surface. Tire-Ground Adhesion and Maximum Tractive Effort The slip, s, of a tire is usually defined as where V is the translatory speed of the tire center, ωis the angular speed of the tire, r is the rolling radius of the free rolling tire, and re is the effective rolling radius of the tire, defined as the ratio of the translatory speed of the tire center to the angular speed of the tire. The tractive force between a car wheel and the surface can be expressed as. Upon a pulling action, the tractive effort applied to the wire rope must never exceed the nominal load capacity of the lifting winch. RZ-166 ™/ RZ-188 ™ tridem rear drive axles are ideal for construction and utility and other severe service applications where more tractive effort is required over conventional tandem axles. If a cross over the tractive effort curve would appear for the next gear by remaining in gear until maximum rpm, then a small, roughly triangular shaped section would be cut out of the available area every time when gear is changed. Long Wheel Base. Tractive Effort -The force developed at all the locomotive driving wheels parallel to the rail to move the locomotive and wagons. Grade Resistance of Tractor 3. Shoe Width: The width of the track shoe as used on the lower, expressed in mm. Chow’s nomograph can be used to significantly shorten the calculation effort by using the following form of Manning’s equation: 0. 15 of SAE J670e and not the SAE tyre axis system diagram. For a railway to operate efficiently and safely, its locomotives should be powerful enough to accelerate their trains rapidly to the maximum allowed line speed, and the braking systems must be able to bring a train reliably to a standstill at a station or signal, even on an adverse gradient. When a vehicle is driven along the road, a dynamic equilibrium exists between the tractive effort between the wheels and the road on the one hand and the total running resistance on the other. The tractive force between a car wheel and the surface can be expressed as. When a vehicle is driven forwards by an engine, or carriages are pulled by a locomotive, the force which causes motion is known as the tractive effort. Influence of Locomotive Tractive Effort on the Forces between Wheel and Rail Influence of Locomotive Tractive Effort on the Forces between Wheel and Rail Oldrich POLACH The calculation is repeated many times for each wheel in each integration step the calculation time is very important. • Determines tractive effort based on train performance • Considers rolling, acceleration and drag resistance • Analyze train trip times • Calculate train movement patterns • Identify power supply inadequacies / pinch points. I'm working on a new guide on building realistic freight consists. 2 The Proposed Method. Electrification of railways, 2. This calculator can be used to calculate the resulting force in a toggle joint with arms with equal lengths. Therefore, Tractive Effort was more important than HorsePower for steam locomotives. The tractive effort power as well as the required power and angular speed (ω) of the motor or engine are described in equations Eq. What' are-the advantages and disadvantages of the regenerative braking of (08). What is the nature of these forces, where do they originate,. Fuel to satisfy vocational loads (e. NJT is carrying 251 million people (73 on rail) and schedule adherence is a key for success, particularly in the traffic to Manhattan through the Trans. Train Control System (TCS). (b) A space vehicle 1250kg traveling at a velocity of 5000 km/h separates by controlled explosion into sections of mass 900 kg and 350 kg. the LFO to provide equivalent tractive effort (horsepower) in the consist, but with decreased fuel consumption. Chow’s nomograph can be used to significantly shorten the calculation effort by using the following form of Manning’s equation: 0. 5 x 30 = 580 grams 42 x 10 The following tractive effort requirements for this type of locomotive are derived in Section 1. As a professor of mechanical engineering, my focus is in advancing and teaching methods for physical system modeling, simulation, and estimation and control. force are actually components of tractive force. The tractive force in an electric vehicle is supplied by the electric motor in overcoming the road load. CEE320 Winter2006 Rolling Resistance Rrl Composed primarily of 1. Offering up to 33% more tractive effort! LaGrange, GA: Trackmobile announces its new Atlas model that is designed to better accommodate rail application locations requiring greater tractive effort due to unfavorable conditions or applications requiring longer strings of railcars to be moved in onsite rail spotting and switching activity. Engineering publications written by engineers, for engineers. Comparing tires on the basis of diameter is done by dividing the circumference in inches by pi, a mathematical symbol whose value is approximately 3. 8 respectively. Research shows that about 20% to 55% of the available tractor energy is wasted at the tractive device/soil interface. TOTAL TRACTIVE EFFORT = Ft = Fa + Fg + Fr. This quantity does not change with the number of drive wheels. Tractive Effort Curve. Road Vehicle Performance: Tractive Effort and Acceleration CE 322 Transportation Engineering Dr. Asynchronous electric motors. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP Power measurements were performed on a MAHA LPS 3000 chassis dynamometer with the vehicle secured as shown in figure 1. tractive effort obtained at each axle, affecting the acceleration, gradeability, maximum speed and drawbar effort. , hotel loads, trash compaction, boom operation, etc. If the rear wheels of the vehicle in Fig. Traction effort of switching locomotive ChME3 with rail-road slope 5‰. pounds and can provide a tractive effort of 100,250 pounds 75 coal cars: each weighs 263,000 pounds Required: Acceleration on a level track F=ma: Train EF 151 Spring, 2012 Lecture 2-5 2 4 locomotives: each 388000 lbs, 100250 lb tractive force 75 cars: 263000 lbs each For the previous problem, find force in coupling between engines and cars. ES44C4 - A1A-A1A trucked version (only 4 powered axles), so far only owned by BNSF Railway and Florida East Coast Railway. 6 Hours TEXT BOOKS: 1. Travelling motor. While others made metal platforms, Tim secretly planned to glue sand-paper to the surface of his platform. 8 Fuel Efficiency 29. Based upon a. are the parameters of the resistance function; M is the mass of the train; i is the section slope; vt() is the speed at time t; vcr is the cruising speed; v. traffic and terminals. (10 marks) b) Calculate and plot the graph of Tractive Effort against vehicle speed up a 10% gradient, from 0 to 30 m/s. Calculation time [sec] MTRP 100 18. The special equipmentused consistsof two electricalabsorption dynamometers, oneoperated asa motor and carrying on its shafta wheel the tire to be tested and. Calculate the mechanical power. % 92 37 The tractive effort and power versus speed characteristics are drawn in Fig. The equation of motion is given by mw dV km F F dt =− (6) The net force (F - Fw), accelerates the vehicle (or decelerates when Fw exceeds F). Next, calculation of the required ratio and transmission stage of the vehicle are done based on the tractive effort calculated beforehand. 3 Traction and tractive effort 5. Petrol and diesel powered passenger vehicles in the sub-mini class, mini class and the compact class are compared with battery electric vehicles from the same classes. Tractive force and power characteristics of a 310. with modest tractive effort. Tractive Effort. 5 m to the exit velocity of 220 m/s. We now have the speed (rpm) and the required tractive effort. The stalled tractive effort: 325 x 2 x 12. See Tractive Effort. Tractive Effort (lbs. The force in the rope is 40 N and it moves 3 m in 11 seconds. Calculate SCFM for pneumatic system components 14. Tractive Effort. 4 Butterworth Differentiating Filter 43 4. UNIT – VIII ELECTRIC TRACTION-III Calculations of tractive effort, power, specific energy consumption for given run, effect of varying acceleration and braking retardation, adhesive weight and braking retardation adhesive weight and coefficient of adhesion. 2046 Pounds 1 HP = 0. The equation of motion is given by mw dV km F F dt =− (6) The net force (F - Fw), accelerates the vehicle (or decelerates when Fw exceeds F). The total axle torque is tractive effort times the. 3 Aerodynamic Resistance 12. Tractive effort calculation for Motor selection including wheel slip, Steering performance predictions Driveline calculations & selection Brake calculations considering Electric bus weight distribution Steering system kinematic analysis using MBD. ¾ Parameters considered: 1. “Because the engine is running at a constant 1 800 rpm, it enables optimal multi-functioning performance and lower fuel consumption. Tractive effort 30,000 N max Speed Variable from 0 to 3. A load is raised by a pulley. inputs to the p. - acceleration - gradeability - maximum speed Forces: W=mg =weight @ C. Rolling Resistance of Tractor 2. The data points calculated in order to produce a torque diagram may also be used to ascertain the mean or average tractive force produced. The stalled tractive effort: 325 x 2 x 12. This can improve overall powertrain system. In the case of the third locomotive, the tractive forces are slightly higher due to the better steering, and the differences in tractive. The longitudinal force in a member can be tensile or compressive depending on the direction of movement of train. methodology, first required tractive effort is estimated and then it is used for deciding reduction ratios and the number of speeds in transmission system. This article describes the mobile performance of a novel vehicle with segmented rubber tracks on a low. Calculating tractive effort on incline Post by KBoogle » Mon Jun 06, 2011 9:48 pm I'm trying to calculate the tractive effort I'll need on my trains for climbing a few hills I can't avoid, and I am look at the entry in the wiki , but I can't figure out one thing. Flexible unloading/loading Bridge. As the speed increases the effective pressure in the cylinders falls, and the full tractive effort of adhesion can not be had; moreover, with such boilers as have as yet been devised, the. This paper explains the development of a control system designed to reduce wheel slip induced by axle-weight changes caused by other wheel slips. ix) Cylinder block of an automobile engine is made of a) Stainless steel b) Alloy cast Iron. To calculate the tractive effort we required the prerequisites values which we already had defined. Calculate the (free static) wheel radius from the tire size marking. Buy a back issue. We found out our equipment has elite drawbar pull and tractive effort giving you more power when you need it. These points served to screen the effects of the variables on the overall system performance and provide a means to predict their impact on vehicle performance. 2, including the possibility of train movements on adjacent lines. 1 Example Calculation for tractive effort 18 3. The TP56 offers better overall tractive effort, lower maintenance, readily available components (off the shelf), greater fuel savings, and lower overall life cycle costs. Hence there is a component of weight acting down the slope which requires additional torque to overcome it. consist with a loaded train weight of 211 tonnes. As used in mechanical engineering, the term tractive force can either refer to the total traction a vehicle exerts on a surface, or the amount of the total traction that is parallel to the direction of motion. , and the radius of the wheel (1/2 the diameter). In vehicle dynamics, tractive force is closely related to the terms tractive effort and drawbar pull, though all three terms have different definitions. Calculate the mechanical power. Tractive effort kN Axle load Propulsion Fuel Engineers 300 20 tonne Electric Diesel Always drivers 350 22,5 tonne Some duo-locos LNG/Diesel Some driverless 400 25 tonne Most duo-locos LNG/electric All driverless Trains Train lengths in RFC Train weight 550-850 m 2 200 tonnes 750-1000 m 4 400 tonnes 1000-2000 m 10 000 tonnes 4. One Coupler. Flyer_2009-02-16_en. Another advantage of 3 phase a. Offering up to 33% more tractive effort! LaGrange, GA: Trackmobile announces its new Atlas model that is designed to better accommodate rail application locations requiring greater tractive effort due to unfavorable conditions or applications requiring longer strings of railcars to be moved in onsite rail spotting and switching activity. namic resistance can account for over 90% of the tractive effort at higher train speeds [12 through 19]. each tunnel section (A steeper grade requires more tractive effort and therefore requires a heavier locomotive). Asynchronous electric motors. savings Hoisting motor. It is accelerated at 1. Rope guide New rope guided system “very high performance” for difficult environments. Power is the force needed to run a train at a certain speed. The tractive coefficient is calculated by the division of the estimated tractive force and the axle weight based on the definition in (3). J moment diagrams blade body Calculate the maximum centre of gravity tension thickness tonne torque track tractive effort. Particularly, recent power electronics technology has simplify the conditions of calculation, assumption is set as shown in Table 3. the tractive effort at the limit of adhesion, any resultant controlled oscillations about the mean driving torque shall be considered in determining the magnitude of the torsional moment My´´. 6 Tractive resistance 123 11. Keywords Keywordsaerodynamic drag, ballasted track, Davis equation, run-down testing, Shinkansen, slab track, tractive effort, train à grande vitesse (TGV), train resistance References 1. Approved or Approved Type Design, type material, procedure, or method given approval by. Traction horsepower at wheel is 3,350 hp (2,500 kW). ¾ Parameters considered: 1. Car vehicle driving up a slope equation and calculator. ii)The time taken and energy dissipated in the motor when it is stopped by plugging. calculate; a) power of the engine. Openshaw Taylor, Orient Longman. The maximum permissible traction force that can be applied to the wheels is governed by two things: the weight of the vehicle and the adhesion coefficient between the tire and the road surface. If a cross over the tractive effort curve would appear for the next gear by remaining in gear until maximum rpm, then a small, roughly triangular shaped section would be cut out of the available area every time when gear is changed. 2, including the possibility of train movements on adjacent lines. Calculation of Coasting and Braking Portion of Speedtime Curve for Run on Track with Gradients and Curves track brake track rails traction motors tractive-effort. Example of a station (Olten, Switzerland). The adhesion coefficient has relatively small value and for tractive effort maximal value reaching it is needed to get maximal value of the adhesion coefficient. Higher the grade/slope, larger is the effort required. As the truck nears highway speed, the inter-axle shaft is disconnected from the power divider, allowing the axle to operate in a more efficient 6x2 mode. Coefficient of traction Edit Diagram of the longitudinal coefficient of adhesion (fx) in function of the speed and the weather conditions for the asphalt:. Also, the net force is written in the form of the coefficients as follows: = 𝑇−( + + )= 1 2+ 2 + 3 ( −1,9) In the power limited case, the maximum vehicle speed is obtained by equating the net force on the vehicle to zero. Tractive Effort is a measure of the force that a locomotive can apply to the train it is pulling. Assume truss under consideration is simply supported by a hinge at L 0 and a roller at L 10. 08/(2Π*3600) =18. es in locomotive ride, track damage, and occasionally, derailments. 7 cm Width 120" 304. Calculating the force needed to move a railroad car from rest is a straightforward process, using a few calculator keystrokes. The hard pulling 620E log skidder is ready to handle tough extraction duties whether it's mature, heavy timber or high production plantation thinning operations. has made every effort to assure that the information contained in this Handbook is accurate and is a fair statement of the results to be achieved in the circumstances indicated. Road Vehicle Performance: Tractive Effort and Acceleration CE 322 Transportation Engineering Dr. Calculate the power used. ii)The time taken and energy dissipated in the motor when it is stopped by plugging. In the context of tractive effort, the most powerful locomotives currently in regular service in the U. Calculate cylinder force/pressure 9. Tractive Effort. Build Basic GT-Drive Model Input vehicle parameters –Sprocket radius –Track length –Shoe/link geometry. 5 𝜌 𝐶𝑑 𝐴 𝑣2 + 𝐶 𝑔 + 𝑖 𝛼. Tractive effort of a diesel-electric locomotive depends on horsepower, train speed, and its electri- cal control characteristics. Ftmax maximum tractive effort, (N). Over Drive and free wheel, Universal joint. Total tractive effort 7 TORQUE REQUIRED ON THE DRIVE WHEEL The torque that is required on the drive wheel will be the one that the drive motor requires to produce so as to obtain the desired drive characteristics. This quantity does not change with the number of drive wheels. A rocket flies at 120 m/s under a propulsion force of 3 000 N. 3 Methodology. The soil interaction of these machines plays a fundamental role in defining their characteristics, and features a peculiar need to compromise opposite needs: working the soil (i. As a professor of mechanical engineering, my focus is in advancing and teaching methods for physical system modeling, simulation, and estimation and control. Calculate the tractive effort with this maximum cut-off. As a result, weight on the other normally adhering axles changes, which may induce wheel slip. Examine a free body diagram Maximum Tractive Effort L= wheelbase h= height of the center of gravity l f, l r. 4m curve : 330 grams. This load can be hauled over a maximal track gradient of 12 ‰. Calculation of Coasting and Braking Portion of Speedtime Curve for Run on Track with Gradients and Curves track brake track rails traction motors tractive-effort. Rolling Resistance of Tractor 2. For obvious reasons, the experiments can not be very exact; and apparently the tractive resistance varies differently for different surfaces. Tractive Effort Curve (Metric Units) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 0 2 4 6 8 1012 1416 1820 2224 2628 3032 3436 3840 42 44 4648 50 Speed (km/h) F (kN) 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 Rolling resistance (%) Grade (%) 5 10 15 20 30 5 10 15 20 30 Empty Loaded TH320 ENGINE: Mercedes OM 926 LA CONVERTER: TRANS: Payload:Clark 6000 Series. it provides greater tractive effort as compared to steam engine which results in higher start-ing acceleration. Tractive effort is a very important feature to wheel loaders because they often need it to dig into a pile and travel rough ground at faster speeds. The average haulage and hoisting costs for these groups ranged from $0. As a pioneer and a founder of Terramechanics, Dr Bekker 2 also developed an approach named bevameter technique which needs soil properties. The tractive effort required to move a train consists of numerous factors, but for most applications only four need to be considered. Boiler pressure was 200 pounds and the locomotives would exert 94,880 pounds tractive effort. There are a number of moments and torques which may act on a tyre. STE is the amount of tractive effort that must be produced by the motive power to start moving a train from a dead stop without slipping the wheels. 6359 Fax: 905. Tractive Efficiency of the Farm Tractor1 By J. HIGH LEVELS OF TRACTIVE EFFORT AND TRACKING SPEEDS. Tractive effort, acceleration and braking 1Tractive effort. Further, ( ç Ø L ( ê F ( å (13) F w is the Force at the Wheels due to the Engine and the Transmission and F r is the net resistance on the vehicle due to Road Roughness, Gradient and Drag. final drive ratio, i 0 = 3. Total Tractive Effort is the net horizontal force applied by the drive wheels to the ground. tractive effort calculation for Motor selection including wheel slip, Steering performance predictions Driveline calculations & selection Brake calculations considering Electric bus weight distribution Steering system kinematic analysis using MBD. However, because of the many variables involved in estimat-ing the production or performance of earthmoving machinery, their consumption of fuel and. So tractive force, when used in this thesis, is defined as per paragraph 7. As owners of the rolling stock it is important to make sure they are highly competitive when trying to win leases with train operating companies. 7 cm Width 120" 304. The tractive effort was raised by some 500 lb. As followers, many researchers, such as R. 017 model steam locomotive. Electrification of railways, 2. 5 Grade Resistance 17. 00 10-3 CVRP 105 13. F - force (N, kg, lb) a - length (m, mm, in, ft). 3 (W3 + W5) 8 SELECTION BASED ON MAXIMUM SPEED ON PLAIN ROAD IN TOP GEAR P = power of engine, kW 0. 60 % operating factor and tropicalised as a standard for greater longevity. is about 3i to 4/4 lb. Toque converters. Another application example presents the. OP / BWED 22 Aug. Tractive Effort The tractive effort can be estimated with the aid of Eq. 3, the traction effort with a rail-road slope of 10‰ is presented. 2 calculate the gear ratio, gradeability factor, acceleration, tractive effort. A shell fired in a gun accelerates in the barrel over a length of 1. The tractive effort and braking curves are illustrated in the following figure. This article addresses model development and initial investigations of its dynamic behaviour in order to establish appropriate energy management strategies for the. A large capacity torque converter with lock-up gives Komatsu large wheel loaders great tractive effort to power into the pile and fill the bucket to capacity, then quickly gain speed when maneuvering and climb up hills or ramps faster than previous models. of Motors/tract. 5 km per hour Turning circle 0 in / 0 m Duration of Batteries Moving an aircraft of 55,000 lbs / 25,000 kg at least 11,500 ft / 3,500 meters including nose wheel pick-ups and set- downs OR 3. it is available for hauling for about 90% of its working days. The tractive force between a car wheel and the surface can be expressed as. With tractive effort estimated to be 12 pounds, performance expectations under steam are that the engine should compare with the Aster GS-4 (7. It is measured in newtons. The tractive effort of a locomotive should be enough for it to haul a train at the maximum permissible speed. The tractive effort required to move a train consists of numerous factors, but for most applications only four need to be considered. For a given tractive effort, increased horsepower allows an increased speed with other things remaining the same. Revolutions per mile are calculated by dividing the tire's circumference in inches into 63,360 (the number of inches in a mile). In the hill climb the vehicle stands at a slope of 260 , and it requires to accelerate on the slope. 4 COSMOSWorks analysis for gear shaft 19 3. The longitudinal force in a member can be tensile or compressive depending on the direction of movement of train. Calculating tractive effort on incline Post by KBoogle » Mon Jun 06, 2011 9:48 pm I'm trying to calculate the tractive effort I'll need on my trains for climbing a few hills I can't avoid, and I am look at the entry in the wiki , but I can't figure out one thing. In automotive engineering. Tractive effort is the force that a locomotive or other motive power (such as a railcar or multiple unit) applies to hauling its load, including the weight of that vehicle itself. Power is the force needed to run a train at a certain speed. The application of D’Alembert’s principle is thus the application of Newton’s second and third laws of motion with the inertial reaction ma, considered as an external force. DATA : Weight of locomotive and train 743,000 Ibs. GE Transportation officially founded. 1 Technical Specification of Existing Springs Parameters Units Outer Spring Inner. 3 Aerodynamic Resistance 12. route profile and transitions between grades. full consist. Tire Traction can also refer to the maximum tractive force between a body and a surface, as limited by available friction; when this is the case, traction is often expressed as the ratio of the maximum tractive force to the normal force and is termed the. The total axle torque is tractive effort times the. Shoe Width: The width of the track shoe as used on the lower, expressed in mm. Tractive Effort Calculation. McKIBBEN2 This pUblication treats specifically the application of tractor power to a towed machine or to a load pulled by a drawbar, but farm power is treated briefly in a broad way to establish relationships. , hotel loads, trash compaction, boom operation, etc. One Coupler. This calculator can be used to calculate the resulting force in a toggle joint with arms with equal lengths. However, because of the many variables involved in estimat-ing the production or performance of earthmoving machinery, their consumption of fuel and. Buy a back issue. An important aspect of daily life in the majority of persons with spinal cord injury. The force which a rail vehicle can exert when pulling a train is called its tractive effort, and depends on various factors. Differential Gear Mechanism of Rear Axle. (4905 N and 735. Drawbar pull is the tractive effort minus the rolling resistance. The Wheel Torque calculated in Step Five is the total wheel torque. So if we look at an AC6000 compared to an AC4400, assuming the weight, traction motors and gear ratio are all the same, they are likely to haul the same load over a given. 5038 PSI 1m = 39. in the constant power region at the most of the travel time. On average the. The two stage speed reducer and its components are designed based on this reduction ratio. Tractive Effort, Breaking Force for Axle and Train With this dynamic effect there are some forces which are applied on rails. Mechanical efficiency may be assumed as 0. Rubbing speed For high-speed applications a further consideration is the linear speed at which the disc is passing between the pads when the brake operates. 1 Maximum Tractive Effort 2. Tractive effort is the force available at the area of contact between the rear wheel tyres and the road for a rear wheel driven car. Leading truck wheels of a 2­8­0 steam locomotive bear some of the locomotive's total weight, but they do not affect tractive effort. 7 Power required to propel vehicle 124 Power available 124 11. Page 8 of 173 User Manual Issue 2010-05-17 IFB DD , UM_OPN_51_01. I don't think it is possible to use one chart to convert amps to tractive effort for several reasons. First, tractive effort is a function of weight on drivers and the factor of adhesion. Dynamic force analysis: D'Alembert's principle, inertia forces, dynamic force analysis of four bar chain, slider crank mechanism, shaking forces -8 hrs Dynamics of reciprocating engines: Gear force, equivalent masses, inertia force in the single engine, bearing loads in the single cylinder engine, -4 hrs. The schedule speed including a station stop of 30seconds is 43. F - force (N, kg, lb) a - length (m, mm, in, ft). Tractive Effort Definition: Tractive effort is defined as the force at the rims or the outer edges of the driving wheels of moving trains. 7 All machines have excellent digging performance giving impressive tearout forces, and high levels of tractive effort. 49 S nQ AR =. Vehicle Performance Prediction viz. The total axle torque is tractive effort times the. Tractive Effort vs Speed Characteristics. calculate individual train performance. Steam Tractive Effort Calculator. Influence of Locomotive Tractive Effort on the Forces Between Wheel and Rail Article (PDF Available) in Vehicle System Dynamics 35(Supplement):7-22 · January 2001 with 1,064 Reads. 308 for 18 teeths Therefore Y=0. The stalled tractive effort: 325 x 2 x 12. The tractive effort is transferred through a conveyor belt by the friction forces generated on the frictional contact surfaces. Those are Tractive effort, breaking force coming to the structure when the sudden breaks are applied and when the train ready to start. characteristics, Tractive effort & transmission requirements, Graph Study of tractive force Vs Vehicle Speed with a traction motor, Vehicle performance & gradiblity Transmission: Clutch Losses in transmission, Dynamics axles loads, Static load on level ground, Loads on grades, Low speed acceleration, Gradiblity performance, Gear Ratio. Assume truss under consideration is simply supported by a hinge at L 0 and a roller at L 10. This system includes: can accommodate the media reservoir of the traction material including particulate;It is in the nozzle of fluid communication with media reservoir;And it is in the dielectric valve of fluid communication with media reservoir and nozzle. 8 Calculation of maximum acceleration, maximum tractive effort and relation for different drives. The amps depend upon the gearing of the locomotive. Fig 3 denotes tractive effort because of gravity where Փ is the angle between railway track which is rising upward or downward and horizontal level. The tractive force in an electric vehicle is supplied by the electric motor in overcoming the road load. of tractive effort in order to push or pull in forward direction six empty light rail vehicles on dry tangent track and two empty light rail vehicles in excessive of a 6% grade without the benefit of weight transfer system from one vehicle to the other. Designing for Longitudinal Force Tuesday September 19, 2006 Louisville, KY WHAT DOES AREMA CHAPTER 8 SAY? • Longitudinal Braking Force(kips) = 45 + 1. G5T / 1 Table no. Wheel slip is an undesirable phenomenon which reduces the life of mechanical parts thus increasing the overall maintenance cost. Wheel Slipping -The wheel rotating on its axis with motion existing between the. With tractive effort estimated to be 12 pounds, performance expectations under steam are that the engine should compare with the Aster GS-4 (7. Other Locomotive Forces# Traction Motor Quirks#. Tire penetration and surface compression (∼ 4%) 3. Two of the main soils of Rio. The tractive effort (horizontal force) is a critical factor related to the bucket filling. Applied mechanics John Hannah, M. 3kN) D58 class was: 55 007lb (244. 1) indicates that speed and acceleration depend on tractive effort, resist-ance, and vehicle mass. November 2007. Vehicle Performance Prediction viz. tractive effort and a smooth ride. 9 Gradeability 126 11. Tractive effort system and method Download PDF Info Publication number CN103068662A. Ch Student of final year M. (1) and Eq. Examine a free body diagram Maximum Tractive Effort L= wheelbase h= height of the center of gravity l f, l r. If a cross over the tractive effort curve would appear for the next gear by remaining in gear until maximum rpm, then a small, roughly triangular shaped section would be cut out of the available area every time when gear is changed. Tractive effort = 510KN Breaking force for Axle = 25% of Axle load (245. (On higher speed vehicles friction in drive components may warrant the addition of 10%-15% to the total tractive effort to ensure acceptable vehicle performance. 08/(2Π*3600) =18. 2 The Proposed Method. So tractive force, when used in this thesis, is defined as per paragraph 7. Large Steering Tyres. The working area of locomotive on Fig. 2 Engine-Generated Tractive Effort 21. Total tractive effort 7 TORQUE REQUIRED ON THE DRIVE WHEEL The torque that is required on the drive wheel will be the one that the drive motor requires to produce so as to obtain the desired drive characteristics. The tractive coefficient is calculated by the division of the estimated tractive force and the axle weight based on the definition in (3). Vehicle Forces For Driving Up Slope Calculato r. 8 Fuel Efficiency 29. In other words, it is the sum of the tractive force and rolling effort on the road surface. Braking Calculations To optimise braking performance there are other considerations which must be taken into account. According to SAE (2003) the formula for tractive effort is: 5280 2* * * * 100 * *5252 M R. The calculator can be used for imperial and metric units as long as the use of units are consistent. There are several reasons why this trend toward increased automation in the power train is to be expected in Europe. Graver and H. (2) accounts for thefrictionbetween thedriven tiresandpavement. The working area of locomotive on Fig. 7457 kW 100 kPa = 14. Tractive effort and power calculation. Problems should be. 640 Hardwick Rd Unit 1, Bolton, ON L7E 5R1 Tel: 905. 11 Vehicle on a curved track 128 Overturning speed 128 Skidding speed 130. In addition, another key factor in operating would be the range of speed available, which with a geared locomotive in particular can be rather restricted:. MAXIMUM TRACTIVE EFFORT When both couplers are used 50,000 lb When one coupler is used 33,825 lb SPECIFICATIONS Weight 52,500 lb 23,360 kg Length 181" 459. The fourth gear tractive effort curve shows that, while climb it can climb grade in fourth gear the speed must be dropped to 40Km/h Surplus Tractive Effort The surplus tractive effort is the difference between the tractive effort curves for each transmission gear and the running resistance (Note that running conditions). helps to generate a tractive force. Analysis and Design of Prestressed Box Girder Bridge by IRC: 112-2011 Phani Kumar.